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Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation 1. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated.
The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.
Stocking density effects on production characteristics and body composition of market size cobia, Rachycentron canadum, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems. Production density in excess of a critical threshold can result in a negative relationship between stocking density and fish production. This study was conducted to evaluate production characteristics of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum, reared to market size in production-scale recirculating aq Effects of stocking density on lipid deposition and expression of lipid-related genes in Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii.
To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities LSD 5. Overall, the results indicated that high stocking density negatively affects growth performance and lipid deposition of Amur sturgeon to a certain extent. Prenatal stress stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats.
Effects of stocking density and sustained aerobic exercise on growth, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout. Thus, high density reduced SGR by raising energy dissipation, at least partially as a physiological response by the fish, although there was no evidence of an endocrine stress response. The only Effects of fumonisin B1 and mycotoxin binders on growth performance, tibia characteristics, gut physiology, and stress indicators in broiler chickens raised in different stocking densities. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of stocking density , fumonisin B1 FB , and mycotoxin binder TB on growth performance, bone quality, physiological stress indicators, and gut health in broiler chickens.
Body weight gain and feed intake were lower P FB-contaminated diet exhibited a higher feed-to-gain ratio compared with those fed an FB-free diet P FB-contaminated diet compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Dietary TB did not affect FB-induced increases in the feed-to-gain ratio. No interaction was observed between stocking density and FB for the measured variables.
Data-Driven Design of Intelligent Wireless Networks: An Overview and Tutorial
Optimal stocking densities of snails [ Archachatina marginata Optimal stocking densities of breeding and fattening snails [Archachatina marginata Saturalis A. Experiment 1 had 3,6, 12, 17 and 22 A. Blue swimming crab is targeted by commercial fisheries because of the high economic value, good taste, and attractive colors. As a result, the stock is overexploited and fisherman catch market also juveniles. The most sustainable solution would be to stop fishing for commercial trade and to culture this crab from brood to market size.
This study aimed to find the best feed and stocking density for the on-growing of crablets. In the end, growth and survival rates were determined. In general, feeding the crablets at a density of 40 m-2 gave the highest growth. For crablest fed with pellets, the density of 40 m-2 gave significantly better growth than 80 m The crablets at a density 40 m-2 having a fish diet with the density 40 m-2 grew better than 60 and 80 m There was no significant difference between fed used among different densities.
The lower densities resulted in higher survival, either on crablets fed with pellets or fish. But, crablets fed the fish diet and cultured in the lowest density 40 m-2 had the highest survival rate. Effects of stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone on immunities, antioxidant status, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi in a biofloc system. Determining optimum stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone is a big concern for shrimp farmers.
However, few studies have assessed the influence of stocking density on the antioxidant status, immunology, digestive enzyme activities, and growth performance of white shrimp in biofloc systems. In this study, these parameters of white shrimp in a biofloc system were compared at three stocking densities : orgs m -3 as low stocking density LD , orgs m -3 as medium stocking density MD , and orgs m -3 as high stocking density HD. These findings can be used to determine suitable stocking densities in the white shrimp farming industry using the biofloc system. All rights reserved.
Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma raised in northern Thailand. Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand.
This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post larvae PL 10; mean weight of 0. Results of the first experiment revealed freshwater prawn raised during the dry season to summer obtained higher growth rate 0.
Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine CrMet and vitamin C VC on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. The trial lasted for 12 wk.
The first 2 wk were for adaptation 26 to 28 wk of age , and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus NDV was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages Pfeed conversion efficiency Pfeed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets.
While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone Phens. The goal of the study was to examine the effect of stocking density on the water quality of culture area, as well as the growth, body composition and cortisol content of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.
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Pen-reared trout were stocked in densities of 40, 60, 80 fish individuals m-3 4. Stocking density was significantly associated with body weight, standard length, VSI viscerosomatic index , CF condition factor and FC food coefficient in group SD3, particularly in day and day 45 or Increased crude fat and decreased crude protein were displayed in high density group when the density reached to 36 kg m In summary, trout exhibited a better growth performance in low density The results indicate that rainbow trout Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.
An increase in stall stocking density SSD , as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a. Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities.
At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters.
In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition. Changes in recruitment, growth, and stock size of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis at West Greenland: temperature and density -dependent effects at released predation pressure.
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Changes in recruitment and, with a lag of 2 years, in stock biomass were most pronounced in the northern part of its distributional range, while bottom temperature Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved They were reared at 2 different stocking densities 2.
The trial lasted days. Fish stocked at the lower density resulted in significantly higher weight gain than fish reared at 2. Amino acids AA regulate key metabolic pathways, including some immune responses.
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Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether an increased availability of dietary AA can mitigate the expected increase in plasma cortisol and metabolites levels due to high stocking density and its subsequent immunosuppression. Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were maintained at low stocking density LSD; 3. The HP diet slightly increased the levels of digestible indispensable AA, together with tyrosine and cysteine. HSD was effective in inducing a chronic stress response after 18 days of treatment since fish held at HSD presented higher plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels.
S Courthouse R. Average Fine Mauii Trend studies reported in Task 3, Part III, have attempted to determine the short term trend in wood fuel use by examining the impact of urban wood combustion on various measures of air quality likely to be impacted by increased wood use Trends in evening carbon monoxide concentrations, the organic content of the TSP aerosol, light scattering properties of the atmosphere and coefficient of haze "soiling index" measurements were examined as possible trend indicators since an insufficient data base of chemical mass balance-derived RWC impact data is available.
Limitations in the measurements and adequacy of the historical data base, however, restricted the analysis to light scattering measurements Bscac at commercial land use sites in Seattle and Portland during the heating seasons October-March. Trends in Bscat measurements were normalized for variations in heating degree days and wind speed to minimize variations due to meteorological factors, averaged to represent a single heating season and bivariate plots of Bscat vs heating season prepared. Emission inventory and dispersion model analysis for the Portland airshed during the period indicate that fine particle impacts from other major sources should decrease or only slightly increase, suggesting that increases in Bscat measurements during the heating seasons are likely associated with increases in RWC emissions.
Although the results of this analysis are, at best, tentative, the rate of increase suggested by this analysis is the same as that estimated from records of firewood supplied by the national forests. This section discusses each of these elements, related assumptions and projections based on the methodology described. Analysis of trends in the volume of firewood removed from forest lands under cutting permits, surveys of household firewood use and trends in the sale of wood burning appliances have been examined, but only the wood cutting permit data base is sufficient to establish possible trends.
Spokane, Washington 7. Long term projections of wood fuel use for the period were prepared using a state-of-the-art computer simulation model which considered the estimated cost of wood and alternative fuels, population and household growth projections, heating requirements, the mix of fuels used in the community and other factors.
Projections of wood fuel use are, however, primarily driven by the magnitude of potential cost savings associated with heating by wood rather than other fuels. The model was modified to include fireplace use as well as wood stoves and furnaces. Because wood stoves typically emit more than twice as much particulate per ton of wood burned than fireplaces, and given the relative increase in the use of wood stoves over fireplaces, adjustment in wood fuel use were required to obtain estimates of future particulate emissions.
Table 4 shows these pro- jections for each 5 year period between and Numerous investigators have described the use of wood as a space heating fuel and energy related issues ,28,36,37,39, ,70,72,73,77,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,, However, to establish this relationship for a specific city required development of data on woodburning activity during February, in Portland, Seattle and Spokane.
This data was gathered within a one square mile area around each air monitoring site to insure that wood use survey results could be related to ambient impact estimates. The wood use surveys were based on a random selection of households within a one-square mile area around each residential air monitoring site; questionnaire surveys were mailed to each household and the results statisti- cally analyzed.
Summary statistics were obtained for each survey area in each of a number of categories related to wood fuel use in the home. Table 5 summarizes the survey results used in establishing wood use - air quality relationships for each of the three communities studies. Given the total number of cords burned during February in each community, an estimate of the weight of one cord of wood and a parti- culate emission factor for wood stoves and fireplaces, an estimate of likely TSP emissions within one square mile of the monitoring sites was made.
The emission estimates can then be used in association with concurrent air quality impact estimates and projections of future emissions to estimate future air quality impacts given the following assumptions and data limitations: 1.
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Representative Impact Measurements; Estimates of RWC impacts must be representative of the heavy wood use areas within the communities studies. As noted in the Task 1 document, extreme care was taken during siting of the samplers to insure that a samples were not subject to impact from any single nearby source; b sites were located in residential areas where, based on surveys of wood stove stacks and wood piles, wood burning was known to be occuring; and c sampler exposure, height above ground and setback from roadways were determined to be consistent with 40 CFR, Part 58 EPA siting criteria.
Similar Dispersion Conditions: Dispersion conditions during the periods selected for analysis must be assumed to be typical of those likely to occur in future years. Because the measured RWC impacts are a function of emission strength and meteorology at the time of sampling, the measured impacts reflect both conditions and, while impact corrections have been made to emission strength term, no analysis -or adjustments to the measured impacts have been made relative to the meteorology.
As noted in Task 1, impact estimates made during February, reflect the relatively mild weather conditions that occurred during that time, such that the study results represent reasonable, rather than extreme, worst cast conditions. Application of Emission Estimates: The rate of change in the projected particulate emission estimates Task 3, Table 4 are assumed to reflect the likely change in emissions in the vicinity of the monitoring site. Since the emission projections were developed for the urban area in which sampling was conducted, this assumption further requires that the spatial distributions of the RWC emissions remains relatively unchanged over time.
Major increases in emission density, for example, in an area predominately upwind of the receptor could increase RWC impacts to a greater degree than anticipated.